Wheat and its nutritional value
The hectoliter weight of durum wheat is higher than in the wheat for bread, cakes and sweets. The wheat with hectoliter weight more than 78 kg and the falling number higher than 230 seconds has higher semolina or flour yield.
The more semolina the durum wheat produces, the more suitable it is for pasty products. Semolina yield of durum wheat is more than 51%. The harder the wheat be, the more semolina it produces. Generally, durum wheat has mostly glassy structure and has more carotenoids than the wheat in bread, cake and sweet. It’s about 703 mg per kg. Durum wheat is more resistant to breaking and cutting than the soft wheat. In the process of grinding, when crushing and splitting, the endosperm is accidentally broken, while the soft wheat’s endosperm is broken in the direction of the grain length. The transparency and glassiness of durum wheat grain refer to how different the layers of protein are lying. Starch grains are stored in glassy durum wheat grains without creating any space in plasma, while the starch granules in wheat and soft flour create space; so that the seed seems farinose due to the light failure. How the starch stores and how quickly the grain grows on the farm play an important role in this relationship.
Moisture and heat can affect the glassiness of the grain and can change it quickly. By increasing the percentage of the glassiness of the grain, its resistance to cutting and breaking increases. In general, the starch granules are not surrounded tightly by protein matrix in soft wheat and the vacancies are not filled and covered by the protein; therefore the section of such wheat seems farinose. The starch matrix structure is very dense in durum wheat, so that the protein surrounds the starch grain like a cortex. There is a positive correlation between hectoliter weight and the percentage of the full glassiness of the grain.